Colorado Native American Studies Resource Guide

This resource guide is far from comprehensive and is intended only as an opening for the exploration of Native Americans in Colorado and their points of contact with Europeans whose presence altered indigenous lifestyles. The use of the term “Colorado” is a recent occurrence when compared with Native American habitation. Since “Colorado” did not exist at the time, neither did the rectangular-shaped state boundary so familiar to those alive today. These sources should be examined with a critical mind and an understanding of the origin of each particular source. Historically Native Americans have been subjected to discrimination and stereotyping. This unfair bias is an inescapable truth of United States history and many of the included sources evidence that fact. As a general rule, books published by a university or scholarly press are more trust-worthy than those by other publishers. Similarly, books with a more recent publishing date may include new research that alters past interpretations.

Though many peoples lived and traveled in what is now Colorado, only the Arapaho, Cheyenne and Ute peoples have been featured in this resource guide for purposes of brevity. The lack of inclusion in this resource guide in no way diminishes the contributions of the Apache, Comanche, Kiowa, Pawnee, Shoshone and others who made their mark.

We welcome corrections and suggestions.

Arapaho Camp c1800s.  Credit: Colorado College LibraryCamp at Sand Creek Massacre Historic Site, 2007.  Credit:  Richard R. Nilles

Timeline

Colorado Native American Timeline

  • 12,000–9,000 BC Clovis Culture
  • 9,000–8,000 BC Folsom Culture
  • AD 1–1300 Ancestral Puebloans
  • AD 450 -750 Modified Basketmaker Period
  • AD 750–1100 Developmental Pueblo Period
  • AD 1100–1300 Classic Pueblo Period
  • AD 1175 Mesa Verde Cliff Palace
  • AD 650–1200 Fremont People
  • c. 1000 Utes arrive
  • 1598 Ute trade with Spanish colonists
  • 1670 First treaty between Utes and Spain
  • c. 1800 Arapaho and Cheyenne arrive
  • 1821 Colorado becomes part of Mexico
  • 1828 Fort Uncompahgre built in Ute territory
  • 1834 William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain open Bent’s Fort trading post
  • 1848 Mexico cedes Southern Colorado to the United States
  • 1849 First treaty between the Utes and the United States
  • Cholera outbreak
  • 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty
  • 1854 Utes destroy Fort Pueblo
  • 1855 Peace treaty ends Ute War
  • 1858 Gold discovered at confluence of South Platte and Cherry Creek on Cheyenne and Arapaho land
  • 1861 Treaty of Fort Wise
  • Territory of Colorado created
  • 1863 Conejos Treaty
  • 1864 Sand Creek Massacre
  • 1868 Treaty confines Utes to western third of Colorado Territory
  • 1869 Medicine Lodge Treaty removes Arapahoe and Cheyenne
  • 1869 Summit Springs
  • 1871 Denver’s Indian Agency established
  • 1873 San Juan Mountain gold and silver rush
  • Utes cede mining area
  • 1876 Colorado becomes a state
  • 1879 Battle of Milk Creek/Meeker Massacre
  • 1881 Ute tribes removed to Colorado and Utah reservations
  • 1881 Helen Hunt Jackson publishes A Century of Dishonor exposing mistreatment of Native Americans
  • 1887 Dawes Severalty Act effectively facilitates the dispossession of Native American lands.
  • 1906 Utes trade land on Utah border for Mesa Verde lands
  • Mesa Verde National Park created
  • 1918 Consolidated Ute Indian Reservation established
  • 1924 Indian Citizenship Act
  • 1934 Indian Reorganization Act
  • 1971 Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Park opened
  • 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act
  • 1979 American Indian Freedom of Religion Act
  • 1986 – 88 Colorado Ute Water Settlement
  • 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
  • 2001 Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site created

Ute woman and child.  Credit:  Colorado Historical Society

Overview

Colorado Native Americans: Overview

For at least the last 14,000 years, people have made the Colorado plains and mountains their home. The first peoples, Paleoindians, followed their food supply across the prairie, hunting mammoth, mastodons, and giant bison. Their skilled hunting of large game required them to live and work together in close cooperative groups. As the giant mammals died off, these indigenous peoples developed technology to hunt smaller game. Some began to plant crops, requiring them to become semi-nomadic, while others continued their nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle.

Among those who took to farming were the Ancestral Puebloans, once referred to as Anasazi. They settled in southwestern Colorado and the surrounding Four Corners area. Known as Basketmakers for perfecting that art, they lived in circular pithouses and grew corn, beans and squash, as well as domesticating turkeys. Between AD 750 and 1100, the Ancestral Puebloans moved to above-ground apartment-style houses. In addition to multi-family dwellings, they retained the use of the circular pithouse design. These ceremonial structures, called kivas, served as centers for Ancestral Puebloan communities. Around AD 1100 the Ancestral Puebloans again changed their architecture and moved into the multi-storied cliff dwellings for which they are best known. After living in these precariously placed structures for only two hundred years, they moved yet again. The great drought of 1275–1300 factored into their move into the Rio Grande Valley and other areas where they built pueblos. The blood of these cliff dwellers still pulses through the veins of modern Pueblo peoples.

Other peoples who had made the Four Corners region their home may also have influenced the Ancestral Puebloans to relocate. Ancestors of the Utes, the oldest continuous group of people to occupy Colorado, found their way into Ancestral Puebloan territory. Later, the Spanish arrived on the Native American continent and introduced horses. By the late 1600s, the Utes began to use horses to hunt buffalo. Other groups who once made southern Colorado their home include the Apache, Navajo, Comanche, Kiowas, and Shoshone.

In the late 1700s, the Arapaho moved onto the Colorado plains, followed shortly thereafter by the Cheyenne. Though they obtained the horse at least thirty years after the Utes, the Cheyenne and Arapaho also became formidable horsemen. Both of these tribes belonged to the Algonquin language group and had migrated from the Great Lakes region. They became allies against the Utes, Shoshones, Kiowas and Comanches.

The discovery of gold in 1858 and the subsequent conflicts with white settlers brought the nomadic lifestyle to an end. The Sand Creek Massacre, an unwarranted attack led by Colonel John M. Chivington against peaceful Cheyennes and Arapahos, marked the end of those tribes as a major presence in Colorado. Despite the drastic depletion of ancestral homelands through a series of treaties, the Utes maintained their presence in the Four Corners area where the Southern Ute and Ute Mountain Ute reservations remain to this day. Colorado has become a major center for many tribal organizations in the state, representing a large number of tribes.

Petroglyph:  “Picture Rock,” Yellow Jacket Canon, Canon of the Ancients.  Credit:  Denver Public Library

Publications

General Colorado Native American

Adams, Richard E., and Murdo J. MacLeod, eds. The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. 3 vol. boxed set. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 4154 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, photos, maps.

Chapin, Frederick H. The Land of the Cliff Dwellers. Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club, 1892. 1x + 188 pp. Index, illustrations, photos. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/landofcliffdwell00chaprich

Cole, Sally J. An Analysis of the Prehistoric and Historic Rock Art of West-Central Colorado. Denver, Colo.: U.S. Bureau of Land Management,1987. xiv + 351 pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, maps.This was the basis for Cole’s 1990 book Legacy on Stone (see below).

———. Legacy on Stone: Rock Art of the Colorado Plateau and Four Corners Region. Boulder, Colo.: Johnson Books, 1990. 279 pp. Index, bibliography, appendix, page notes, photos, drawings, maps.

Colorado Commission on Indian Affairs. Colorado Directory of American Indian Resources. Denver: Colorado Commission on Indian Affairs, 2004–2005. Annual publication. 66 pp. Maps, drawings.Full text available online: tinyurl.com/y9h3rqx

Crum, Sally. People of the Red Earth: American Indians of Colorado. Santa Fe, N.M.: Ancient City Press, 1996. 287 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices (Indian place names in Colorado), drawings, photos, maps.

Howbert, Irving. The Indians of the Pike’s Peak Region: Including an Account of the Battle of Sand Creek, and of Occurrences in El Paso County, Colorado, during the War with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, in 1864 and 1868. New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1914. 230 pp. Drawings. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/indianspikespea00unkngoog

Hubbard, Shirley. Indians of Colorado: The Colorado Chronicles. Vol 3. Frederick, Colo.: Platte’ n Press, 1981. Illustrations, photographs, maps.

Hughes, Johnson Donald. American Indians in Colorado. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett, 1977. 2nd ed. 1987. Colorado Ethnic History Series, No. 1. viii + 143 pp. Index, bibliography, endnotes, photos, maps.

Hurst, Clarence Thomas. Colorado’s Old-Timers: The Indians Back to 25,000 Years Ago. Gunnison, Colo.: Colorado Archaeological Society, 1946. iv + 64 pp. Bibliography, drawings, photos, maps.

Hyde, George E. Indians of the High Plains: From the Prehistoric Period to the Coming of Europeans. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1959. Fifth printing 1981. 228 pp. Index, bibliography, footnotes, photos, drawings, maps.

Jackson, Helen Hunt. A Century of Dishonor: A Sketch of the United States Government’s Dealings with Some of the Indian Tribes. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1885. 1887 enlarged edition. x + 514 pp. Appendices. Full text (1917) available online: books.google.com/books

Marriott, Alice. Indians of the Four Corners. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1952. Reprint, Santa Fe, NM: Ancient City Press, 1996. 304pp. illustrations. bibliography. index. hardback.

McConnell, Virginia [Simmons]. Indians of the Pikes Peak Region. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Colorado Springs Public Schools, 1966. 28 pp.

Parker, Kathleen. The Only True People: A History of the Native Americans of the Colorado Plateau. Moab, Utah: Thunder Mesa Publishing, 1991. 84 pp. Illustrations, photographs, maps.

Prehistory: General

Baker, Steven G. Numic Archaeology on the Douglas Creek Arch, Rio Blanco County, Colorado: Ute Rancherías and the Broken Blade Wickiup Village. Montrose, Colo.: Centuries Research, 1996.

Cassells, E. Steve. The Archaeology of Colorado. Boulder, Colo.: Johnson Books, 1983. Rev. ed. 1993. xv + 409 pp. Index, bibliography, chapter references, glossary, charts. drawings, photos, maps.

Claassen, Cheryl. Colorado Archaeology: Riddles and Resources—A Resource Guide and Preservation Handbook. Denver: Denver Museum of Natural History, 1984. 13 pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, map.

———, and Rosemary A. Joyce, eds. Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. xiii + 277 pp. Bibliography, index, illustrations, maps, tables.

Coffin, Roy Gregg. Northern Colorado’s First Settlers. Fort Collins, Colo.: Colorado State College, 1937. 19 pp. Illustrations. Full text available online: hdl.handle.net/10217/5525 Day, Jane S., Paul D. Friedman, and Marcia J. Tate. Rock Art of the Western Canyons. Boulder, Colo.: Johnson Books, 1989. 184 pp.

Gilmore, Kevin P., Marcia Tate, Mark L. Chenault, Bonnie Clark, Terri McBride, and Margaret Wood. Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Platte River Basin. Denver: Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, 1999. xiii + 453 pp.

Gooding, John D., and William Lane Shields. Sisyphus Shelter. Colorado Cultural Resource Series No 18. Denver: U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 1985. xi + 232 pp. Illustrations, bibliography.

Gunnerson, James H. The Fremont Culture: A Study in Culture Dynamics on the Northern Anasazi Frontier. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 52, No. 2. Cambridge, Mass.: Peabody Museum, 1969. xv + 221 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, tables, appendices, maps.

Hafen, LeRoy Reuben. The Indians of Colorado. Denver: State Historical Society of Colorado, 1952. 52 pp. Illustrated. Reprinted by the Society, with additions by William D. Cartwright, in 1957 and 1959.

Lipe, William D., Mark D. Varien, and Richard H. Wilshusen, eds. Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Southern Colorado River Basin. Denver: Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, 2006.

Look, Alfred Alvin. In My Back Yard. Denver: University of Denver Press, 1951. 316 pp. Illustrations, maps. Rev. ed. publ. under the title 1,000 Million Years on the Colorado Plateau, by Golden Bell Press, Denver, 1955. Rev. ed. pub. by Golden Bell, Denver, 1966. viii + 318 pp. Illustrations. maps.

Martorano, Marilyn A., Ted Hoefer III, Margaret (Pegi) A. Jodry, Vince Spero, and Melissa L. Taylor. Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Rio Grande Basin. Denver: Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, 1999.

Metcalf, Michael D., and Kevin D. Black. Archaeological Excavations at the Yarmony Pit House Site, Eagle County, Colorado. Cultural Resource Series No. 31. Denver: U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 1991. 247 pp. Illustrations.

Nabhan, Gary Paul. Enduring Seeds: Native American Agriculture and Wild Plant Conservation. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1989. xviii + 225 pp. Index, illustrations.

Reed, Alan. West Central Colorado Prehistoric Context. Denver: State Historical Society of Colorado, 1984.

Stiger, Mark. Hunter-Gatherer Archaeology of the Colorado High Country. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2001. 360 pp. Index, bibliography. 92 b&w photos, 36 drawings, 20 tables.

Stone, Tammy. The Prehistory of Colorado and Adjacent Areas. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1999. 214 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, glossary, drawings, maps.

Simms, Steven R. Ancient Peoples of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2008. vii + 376pp. Index, illustrations, bibliography.

Wormington, Hannah Marie. Prehistoric Indians of the Southwest. Denver: Denver Museum of Natural History, 1947. Popular Series No. 7. 2nd ed., 1951. 191 pp. Index, bibliography, appendix, glossary, photos, drawings, maps.

———. A Reappraisal of the Fremont Culture. Denver: Denver Museum of Natural History, 1955. xi + 200 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, maps.

Paleoindians

Benedict, James B., and Byron L. Olson. The Mount Albion Complex. Research Report No. 1. Ward, Colo.: Center for Mountain Archaeology, 1978.

Bonnichsen, Robson, Bradley T. Lepper, Dennis Stanford, and Michael R. Waters, eds.Paleoamerican Origins: Beyond Clovis. Center for the Study of the First Americans. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2006. 367 pp. Index, illustrations.

Brunswig, Robert H. Frontiers in Colorado: Paleoindian Archaeology: From the Dent Site to the Rocky Mountains. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2007. 364 pp. Index, bibliography, photographs, illustrations, tables, maps.

Bryan, Kirk, and Louis L. Ray. Geologic Antiquity of the Lindenmeier Site in Colorado. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1940. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 99, No. 2, Publication 3554. vi + 76 pp. Bibliography, illustrations, maps, photographs.

Meltzer, David J. Folsom: New Archaeological Investigations of a Classic Paleoindian Bison Kill. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. xiv + 374 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, tables, maps, illustrations, photographs.

Pitblado, Bonnie L. Late Paleoindian Occupation of the Southern Rocky Mountains: Early Holocene Projectile Points and Land Use in the High Country. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2003. 360 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations.

Roberts, Frank and Harold Hanna Jr. A Folsom Complex: Preliminary Report on Investigations at the Lindenmeier Site in Northern Colorado. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 94, No. 4, Publication 3333. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1935. 51 pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, map. ———. Additional Information on the Folsom Complex: Report on the Second Season’s Investigations at the Lindenmeier Site in Northern Colorado. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 95, No. 10, Publication 3390. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1936. iii + 50 pp. Bibliography, drawings, photos, map.

Stanford, Dennis J., and Jane S. Day, eds. Ice Age Hunters of the Rockies. Denver: Denver Museum of Natural History and University Press of Colorado, 1992. xviii + 378 pp. Illustrations, photographs, diagrams, tables.

Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde.  Credit:  Richard R. Nilles

Ancestral Puebloan/Anasazi

Arrhenius, Olof W. Stones Speak and Waters Sing: The Life and Works of Gustaf Nordenskiold. Ed. and annotated by Robert H. and Florence C. Lister. Mesa Verde National Park: Mesa Verde National Park and Mesa Verde Museum Association, 1984. v + 93 pp. Index, bibliography, photos, map, drawings.

Baldwin, Gordon C. The Ancient Ones: Basketmakers and Cliff Dwellers of the Southwest. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1963. 224 pp. Index, photographs.

Breternitz, David A., Christine K. Robinson, and G. Timothy Gross. Dolores Archaeological Program: Final Synthetic Report. Denver: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1986. 899 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, photographs, tables, graphs.

Brunswig, Robert H., and Bonnie L. Pitblado, eds. Frontiers in Colorado Paleoindian Archaeology: From the Dent Site to the Rocky Mountains. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2007. 364 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations.

Bullene, Emma Frances [Jay]. The Psychic History of the Cliff Dwellers: Their Origin and Destruction. Denver: Reed, 1905. 256 pp. Photos, drawings.

Carlson, Roy L. Basket Maker III Sites near Durango, Colorado. Boulder: University of Colorado Studies, 1963; 1974 reprint by Kraus Reprint Co., Millwood, N.Y. (University of Colorado Studies. Series in Anthropology No. 8. The Earl Morris Papers, No. 1. Introduction to the Earl Morris Papers by Joe Ben Wheat). xii + 82 pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, maps.

Ferguson, William M. The Anasazi of Mesa Verde and the Four Corners. Niwot, Colo.: University Press of Colorado, 1996. xvi + 203 pp. Index, bibliography, glossary, color photos, drawings, maps.

——— and Arthur H. Rohn. Anasazi Ruins of the Southwest in Color. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1990. Foreword by Richard B. Woodbury. xiv + 296 pp. Index, bibliography, glossary, color photos, drawings, maps.

Fewkes, Jesse Walter. Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Cliff Palace. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1911. 82 pp. Footnotes, photos, drawings, map. (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin No. 51). 1974 reprint by Scholarly Press, St. Clair Shore, Mich.Full text available online at: books.google.com/books

———. Prehistoric Villages, Castles, and Towers of Southwestern Colorado. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1919. 113 pp. Index, footnotes, photos, drawings, map. (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin No. 70). Full text available online: books.google.com/books

Lister, Robert Hill. Site 499, Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1964. 91 pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, maps. (University of Colorado Studies, Series in Anthropology, No. 9).

———, ed. Emergency Archaeology in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, 1948 1966. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1968. viii + 108 pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, map. (University of Colorado Studies, Series in Anthropology, No. 15: Contributions to Mesa Verde Archaeology, V).

McKern, W. C. Western Colorado Petroglyphs. Denver: U.S. Bureau of LandManagement, 1981. 2nd printing 1983. xiii + 112 pp. Bibliography, photos,drawings, map. (BLM Cultural Resource Series No. 8).

McNitt, Frank. Richard Wetherill: Anasazi. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1957. Rev. ed. 1966. xii + 362 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, photos, drawings, maps.

Madson, David B., ed. Understanding the Anasazi of Mesa Verde and Hovenweep. Santa Fe, N.M.: Ancient City Press, 1991. 39 pp. Illustrations, photographs.

Lamb, Susan and Jeff Nicholas. Mesa Verde National Park: Life, Earth, Sky. 48pp. Illustrations, photos.

Noble, David Grant. The Mesa Verde World: Explorations in Ancestral Puebloan Archaeology. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press, 2006. 186pp. Index, photos, maps, bibliography.

Nordenskiold, Gustaf Erik Adolf. The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, Southwestern Colorado: Their Pottery and Implements. Trans. D. Lloyd Morgan. Stockholm, Sweden: P. A. Norstedt & Soner, 1893; numerous reprints. Glorieta, N.M.: Rio Grande Press, Inc., 1979. 281 pp. Index, appendix, color photos, b&w photos, drawings, maps.Full text available online: books.google.com/books

———. Letters of Gustaf Nordenskiold Written in the Year 1891 and Articles from the Journals Ymer and Photographic Times. Ed. by Irving L. Diamond and Daniel M. Olson. Trans. by Daniel M. Olson. Mesa Verde National Park: Mesa Verde Museum Association, Inc., 1991. 99 pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, maps.

Olsen, Nancy H. Hovenweep Rock Art: An Anasazi Visual Communication System. Los Angeles, Calif.: University of California, Los Angeles, Institute of Archaeology, 1985. Second printing, 1987. Occasional Paper 14, 1985, 1987. xvi + 153 pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, maps, charts.Rohn, Arthur H. Wetherill Mesa Excavations: Mug House, Mesa Verde National Park—Colorado. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1971. xix + 280 pp. Index, bibliography, appendix, photos, drawings, maps. Full text available online: www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/meve/7d/contents.htm

Skopic, Eric and Christopher W. Skopec. The Ancestral Puebloan Primer. Create Space, 2010. Photographs, illustrations.

Smith, Duane A. Mesa Verde National Park: Shadows of the Centuries. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1988. xi + 254 pp. Index, bibliography, endnotes, appendices, photos, maps.

Swannack, Jervis D. Jr. Wetherill Mesa Excavations: Big Juniper House, Mesa Verde National Park—Colorado. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1969. 188 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, photos, drawings, maps. (Archaeological Research Series Number Seven-C.) Full text available online: www.nps.gov/history/history/online¬_books/archeology/7c/index.htmTurner, Christy G. II, and Jacqueline A. Turner. Man Corn: Cannibalism and Violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1999. 547 pp. Index, bibliography, appendix, photos, maps, charts.

Watson, Don. Cliff Dwellings of the Mesa Verde: A Story in Pictures. Mesa Verde National Park: Mesa Verde Museum Association, 1951, 1954, 1961. 52 pp. Illustrations.

———. Cliff Palace: The Story of an Ancient City. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1949. 142 pp. Photos.

———. Indians of the Mesa Verde. Mesa Verde National Park: Mesa Verde Museum Association, 1953; reprinted 1961. v + 188 pp. 24 photos.

Wenger, Gilbert R. The Story of Mesa Verde National Park. Mesa Verde National Park: Mesa Verde Museum Association, 1980. 79 pp. Bibliography, glossary, color photos, drawings, maps.

Wetherill, Benjamin Alfred. The Wetherills of the Mesa Verde: Autobiography of Benjamin Alfred Wetherill. Ed. and annotated by Maurine S. Fletcher. Cranbury, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1977. 333 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, chronology, photos, drawings, maps.

               Sand Creek Massacre Historic Site Dedication  April 27, 2007.    Credit:  Richard R. Nilles

Cheyenne and Arapaho

Afton, Jean, David Fridtjof Halaas, and Andrew E. Masich with Richard N. Ellis. Cheyenne Dog Soldiers: A Ledgerbook History of Coups and Combat. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1997. xxxii + 400 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, glossary, endnotes, B&W and 124 color photos, drawings.

Bates, Craig D. The Cheyenne-Arapaho Ledger Book from the Pamplin Collection. Portland: Dr. Robert B. Pamplin, Jr., 2003. vii + 348 pp. Photographs, illustrations, appendix.

Battey, Thomas C. The Life and Adventures of a Quaker among the Indians. Boston and New York: Lee, Shepard and Dillingham, 1875. xii + 339 pp. Appendix, illustrations. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/lifeandadventure00battrich

Becher, Ronald. Massacre along the Medicine Road: A Social History of the Indian War of 1864 in Nebraska Territory. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Press, 1999. 475 pp.

Berthrong, Donald J. The Cheyenne and Arapaho Ordeal: Reservation and Agency Life in the Indian Territory, 1875–1907. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976. xv + 402 pp. Index, bibliography, endnotes, photos, maps.

———. The Southern Cheyennes. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963. (The Civilization of the American Indian Series, Vol. 66.) xiv + 442 pp. Index, bibliography, footnotes, photos, drawings, maps.

Broome, James Jefferson. Dog Soldier Justice: The Ordeal of Susanna Alderdice in the Kansas Indian War. Lincoln, Kans.: Lincoln County Historical Society, 2003.

Carroll, John, comp. The Sand Creek Massacre: A Documentary History. New York: Sol Lewis, 1973. Limited edition of 500 copies. xxi + 418 pp.

———. Washita! Bryan, Tex.: Privately printed, 1978. 44 pp.

———. General Custer and the Battle of the Washita: The Federal View. Bryan, Tex.: Guidon Press, 1978. 256 pp. Illustrations.

Chalfant, William Y. Cheyennes and Horse Soldiers: The 1857 Expedition and the Battle of Solomon’s Fork. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. 415 pp. Index, maps, illustrations.

Coffin, Morse H., The Battle of Sand Creek. Ed., and with introduction and notes by Alan W. Farley. Waco, Tex.: W. M. Morrison, 1965. Limited edition of 300 copies. 40 pp. Footnotes, photos.

Cohoe, William. A Cheyenne Sketchbook. Commentary by E. Adamson Hoebel and Karen D. Petersen. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964. xv + 96 pp. Bibliography, illustrations.

Craig, Reginald S. The Fighting Parson: The Biography of Colonel John M. Chivington. Los Angeles: Westernlore Press, 1959. (Part of the Great West and Indian Series XVII). xv + 284 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, photos, drawings, map.

Curtis, Edward S. The North American Indian. Vol. 6: The Cheyenne. Norwood, Mass.: The Plimpton Press, 1911. Index, appendix, illustrations. Full text available online: curtis.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/toc.cgi

———. The North American Indian. Vol. 19: The Southern Cheyenne. Norwood, Mass.: The Plimpton Press, 1930. Index, appendix, illustrations. Full text available online: curtis.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/toc.cgi

Densmore, Frances. Cheyenne and Arapaho Music. Los Angeles: Southwest Museum, 1936. 111 pp.

Dixon, David, Hero of Beecher Island: The Life and Military Career of George A. Forsyth. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994. xviii + 257 pp. Index, bibliography, endnotes, photos, drawings, maps.

Dorsey, George A. The Cheyenne. 2 vols. Vol. 1: Ceremonial Organization. Vol. 2: The Sun Dance. Chicago: Field Columbian Museum Anthropological Series, Vol. 9, 1905. Reprinted by MacRae, Enumclaw, Wash., 1976. 186 pp. Drawings, photos. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/thecheyenne01dorsrich

Ekrich, Arthur A. Jr. “Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians vs. The United States: Historical Background.” In Arapaho-Cheyenne Indians. United States Indian Claims Commission, American Indian Ethnohistory Series: Plains Indians, ed. by David Agee Hott. New York: Garland, 1974.

English-Cheyenne Student Dictionary. Produced by the Language Research Department of the Northern Cheyenne Title VII ESEA Bilingual Education Program. Lame Deer, Mont., 1976. xviii + 163 pp. Bibliography.

Fay, George Emory. Treaties between the Tribes of the Great Plains and the United States of America, Cheyenne and Arapaho, 1825–1900 &c. Greeley, Colo.: Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, 1977. vi + 125 pp. Bibliography.

Fowler, Oretta. The Arapaho. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1989. xxiii + 373 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations.

Giglio, Virginia, Southern Cheyenne Women’s Songs. Foreword by David P. McAllester. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994. xxi + 243 pp. Index, bibliography, glossary, appendices, musical notation, 19 photos, drawings, maps.

Greene, Jerome A., and Douglas D. Scott. Finding Sand Creek: History, Archaeology, and the 1864 Massacre Site. Foreword by Christine Whitacre. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004. Photos, maps, appendices, endnotes, bibliography, index.

Grinnell, George Bird. By Cheyenne Campfires. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1926. Paperback printed in 1962 with foreword from Omer C. Stewart. xviii + 305 pp. 9 photos.

———. The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Ways of Life. 2 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1923. 788 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, maps.

———. The Fighting Cheyennes. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1915. viii + 431 pp. Photos, maps. Rev. ed. by University of Oklahoma Press, 1956. xvii + 450 pp. Index, 15 photos, maps. (The Civilization of the American Indian Series, Vol. 44). Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/fightingcheyenne00grin

Halaas, David Fridtjof, and Andrew E. Masich. Halfbreed: The Remarkable True Story of George Bent, Caught between the Worlds of the Indian and the White Man. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2004. xv + 458 pp. Photos, maps, endnotes, bibliography, index.

Hat, William Wayne Red, Jr. and Sibylle M. Schlesier. Cheyenne Keeper of the Arrows. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008. 156pp.

Hatch, Thom. Black Kettle: The Cheyenne Chief Who Sought Peace but Found War. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. xi + 308 pp. Index, bibliography, notes, illustrations, maps.

Hodges, Daniel Houston. Transcription and Analysis of Southern Cheyenne Songs. 1980. 260 pp. Includes 2 audio cassettes, sheet music.

Hoebel, E. Adamson, and Karl N. Llewellyn. The Cheyenne Way: Conflict and Case Law in Primitive Jurisprudence. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1941. x + 360 pp. Index, illustrations. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/cheyennewayconfl011926mbp

Hoebel, E. Adamson. The Cheyennes: Indians of the Great Plains. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960. vii + 103 pp. Bibliography, 4 photos, map. (Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology).

Hoig, Stan. The Battle of the Washita: The Sheridan-Custer Indian Campaign of 1867–69. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976, 1979. 276 pp. Index, bibliography, appendix, footnotes, illustrations, maps, photos.

———. The Peace Chiefs of the Cheyennes. Foreword by Boyce D. Timmons. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980. xiv + 206 pp. Index, bibliography, endnotes, 42 photos, map.

———. The Sand Creek Massacre. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958, 1961. xiii + 217 pp. Index, bibliography, appendix, footnotes, photos, drawings, maps.

———. Tribal Wars of the Southern Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.

———. The Western Odyssey of John Simpson Smith: Frontiersman and Indian Interpreter. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004. Index, bibliography, footnotes, photos.

Howbert, Irving. The Indians of the Pike’s Peak Region: Including an Account of the Battle of Sand Creek, and of Occurrences in El Paso County, Colorado, during the War with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, in 1864 and 1868. New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1914. 230 pp. Drawings. Full text available online:http://www.archive.org/details/indianspikespea00unkngoog

Hyde, George E., Life of George Bent: Written from His Letters. Savoie Lottinville, ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968. xxv + 389 pp. Index, bibliography, footnotes, 25 photos, drawings, maps.

Jablow, Joseph. The Cheyenne in Plains Indian Trade Relations, 1795–1840. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1951, 1966. ix + 100 pp. Illustrations, maps.

Jauken, Arlene Feldmann. The Moccasin Speaks : Living as Captives of the Dog Soldier Warriors, Red River War, 1874-1875. Lincoln, NE: Dageforde Publishing, 1997. x + 283pp. Index, illustrations, photographs, bibliography.

Jones, Douglas C. The Treaty of Medicine Lodge. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966. xv + 237 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, photographs, maps.

Josephy, Alvin M. The Civil War in the American West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. xiv + 448 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, photographs, maps.

Kloberdanz, Timothy J. The Tragedy at Summit Springs, from the Viewpoint of the Indians. Boulder, Colo.: Q-Copy Center, 1970. v + 18 pp. Illustrations.

Kraft, Louis. Custer and the Cheyenne: George Armstrong Custer’s Winter Campaign on the Southern Plains. El Segundo, Calif.: Upton and Sons, 1995. xi + 212 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, maps.

Lavender, Davis. Bent’s Fort. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1954. 450pp. Index, illustrations, maps, bibliography.

Leckie, William H. The Military Conquest of the Southern Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963. xv + 269 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, photographs, maps.

Leman, Wayne. A Reference Grammar of the Cheyenne Language. Greeley: Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, 1979, 1980.

Mann, Henrietta. Cheyenne-Arapaho Education, 1871–1982. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1997. 205 pp. Index, bibliography, endnotes.

Marquis, Thomas Bailey, ed. Cheyenne and Sioux: The Reminiscences of Four Indians and a White Soldier. Stockton, Calif.: Pacific Center for Western Historical Studies, University of the Pacific, 1973. 79 pp. Index, bibliography.

———. The Cheyennes of Montana. With an introduction and a biography of the author by Thomas D. Weist. Algonac, Mich.: Reference Publications, Inc., 1978. 297 pp. Index, illustrations, maps.

Mendoza, Patrick M. Song of Sorrow: Massacre at Sand Creek. Foreword by U.S. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell. Denver: Willow Wind, 1993. x + 181 pp. Index, bibliography, photos, drawings.

Meredith, Grace E. Girl Captives of the Cheyennes: A True Story of the Capture and Rescue of Four Pioneer Girls, 1874. Los Angeles: Gem Publishing Company, 1927. xxvii + 123 pp. Bibliography, illustrations, maps, appendices. Reprint Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Publishing, 2004.

Mooney, James. The Cheyenne Indians: Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association. Vol. 1, Part. 6. Lancaster, Penn.: The New Era Printing Company, 1907. 357 pp. Full text available online: books.google.com/books

Monnett, John H. The Battle of Beecher Island and the Indian War of 1867–1869. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992. ix + 235 pp. Index, bibliography, endnotes, photos, drawings, maps.

Moore, John H. The Cheyenne Nation: A Social and Demographic History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987. xxv + 390 pp. Illustrations, maps.

_____. The Peoples of America: The Cheyenne. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Inc., 1999. ix + 352pp. Index, illustrations, bibliography.

Painter, C. C. Cheyennes and Arapahoes Revisited, and a Statement of Their Agreement and Contract with Attorneys. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association, 1893. 62 pp.

Penney, Grace Jackson. Tales of the Cheyennes. Illustrations by Walter Richard West. Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1953. 118 pp. Drawings.

Petersen, Karen Daniels. Howling Wolf: A Cheyenne Warrior’s Graphic Interpretation of His People. Palo Alto, Calif.: American West Publishing Co., 1968. 63 pp. Illustrations, footnotes. Peter, Rodolphe. English-Cheyenne Dictionary. Kettle Falls, Wash.: Valdo Petter, 1913–15. 1126 pp. Full text available online: http://www.bethelks.edu/mla/holdings/scans/petter_dict/html

Powell, Peter J. The Cheyennes: Ma heo o’s People. A Critical Biography. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1964. 160 pp.

———. People of the Sacred Mountain: A History of the Northern Cheyenne Chiefs and Warrior Societies, 1830–1879, with an Epilogue, 1969–1974. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1979. 2 vols. [1] xl + 688 pp.; [2] xiii + 752 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, illustrations, photos, endnotes.

———. Sweet Medicine: The Continuing Role of the Sacred Arrows, the Sun Dance, and the Sacred Buffalo Hat in Northern Cheyenne History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969. xxxvi + 935 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, illustrations, photos, endnotes.

Roberts, Gary L. “Sand Creek, Tragedy and Symbol.” Ph D. diss., University of Oklahoma, 1984. University Microfilms International.

Sand Creek Massacre Project. Vol. 1: Site Location Study, and Sand Creek Massacre Project, Vol. 2: Special Resource Study and Environmental Assessment. Denver: National Park Service, Intermountain Region, 2000. 366 pp. (vol. 1) 171 pp. (vol. 2). Bibliography, footnotes, appendices, photos, maps. Available as a PDF file: www.nps.gov/applications/parks/sand/ppdocuments/ACF33.pdf

Schlesier, Karl H. The Wolves of Heaven: Cheyenne Shamanism, Ceremonies, and Prehistoric Origins. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. xviii + 214 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations.

Schultz, Duane. Month of the Freezing Moon: The Sand Creek Massacre, November 1864. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990. 229 pp. Index, bibliography, endnotes, photos, drawings, map.

Seger, John H. Early Days among the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians. Stanley Vestal, ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1924. 91 pp. (Oklahoma University Studies No. 19). 2nd ed., 1934; 2nd ed. “in new format,” 1956 (Civilization of the American Indian, Vol. 5). xvii + 146 pp. Appendix, photos. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/earlydaysamongth008983mbp

Spotts, David L. Campaigning with Custer and the Nineteenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry on the Washita Campaign, 1868–69. Los Angeles: Wetzel Publishing Company, 1928. 215 pp. Illustrations.

Spring, Agnes Wright. Casper Collins: The Life and Exploits of an Indian Fighter of the Sixties. New York: Columbia University Press, 1927. 187pp. Illustrations.

Stands in Timber, John, and Margot Liberty with the assistance of Robert M. Utley. Cheyenne Memories. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1967. (Yale Western Americana Series, Vol. 17.) xvii + 348 pp. Index, bibliography, footnotes, photos, drawings, maps.

Szabo, Joyce M. Howling Wolf and the History of Ledger Art. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994. xv + 270 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations.

Trenholm, Virginia Cole. The Arapahoes: Our People. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986. xviii + 327 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, photographs, maps.

Viola, Herman J. Warrior Artists: Historic Cheyenne and Kiowa Indian Ledger Art: Drawn by Making Medicine and Zotum. With commentary by Joseph D. and George P. Horse Capture. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1998. 132 pp. Drawings.

Ware, Eugene F. The Indian War of 1864. Topeka, Kans.: Crane & Co., 1911. xii + 601 pp. Index, appendices, illustrations. Full text available online: books.google.com/books

Weingardt, Richard. Sound the Charge: The Western Frontier—Spillman Creek to Summit Springs. Englewood, Colo.: Jacqueline Enterprises, 1978. 184 pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, maps.

Weist, Tom. A History of the Cheyenne People. Billings: Montana Council for Indian Education, 1977. 227 pp. Index, bibliography, maps, photos.

Werner, Fred H. The Summit Springs Battle, July 11, 1869. Greeley, Colo.: Werner Publications, 1991. 185 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, photos, drawings, maps.

Werstein, Irving. Massacre at Sand Creek. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1963. 187 pp. Index, bibliography, maps.

West, Elliott. The Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, Rush to Colorado. Lawrence, KS: Kansas UP, 1998. Xxiv + 422pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, photographs, maps.

Wynkoop, Edward W. The Tall Chief: The Unfinished Autobiography of Edward W. Wynkoop, 1856–1866. Ed. and with an introduction by Christopher B. Gerboth. Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1993.

Ute Warriors. Credit:  Colorado Historical Society

Utes

Akens, Jean. Ute Mountain Tribal Park: The Other Mesa Verde. Moab, Utah: Four Corners Publications, 1987. 113 pp. Photos, maps, drawings, bibliography.

Archuleta County, Colorado. Archaeological and Historical Evaluation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Proposed Kearns Canyon Reforestation and Site Preparation Project, Southern Ute Reservation, Colorado. Prepared by Jamie A. Karlson and Robert W. Biggs. Durango, Colo.: Archaeological Consultants, 1986.

Bailey, Lynn Robison. Indian Slave Trade in the Southwest: A Study of Slave-Taking and Traffic of Indian Captives. Los Angeles: Westernlore Press, 1966. xvi + 236 pp. Illustrations, maps.

Baker, Steven G. The Uncompahgre Valley Historic Ute Project: First Interim Report and Executive Summary, with Preliminary Excavation Reports on Chief Ouray’s Homes at Montrose (5MN847) and Ouray (5OR965). Montrose, Colo.: Centuries Research, Inc., 1991.

Becker, Cynthia S. Chipeta: Queen of the Utes. Montrose, CO: Western Reflections Publishing, 2003. 278pp. Index, photos, illustrations, maps.

Burton, Lloyd. American Indian Water Rights and the Limits of Law. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991. xiii + 174. Index, bibliography, illustrations, maps.

Conetah, Fred A. A History of the Northern Ute People. Ed. by Kathryn L. MacKay and Floyd A. O’Neil. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Printing Service for the Uintah-Ouray Tribe, 1982. xii + 163 pp. Index, bibliography, photos, illustrations.

Dawson, Thomas Fulton, and S. J. V. Skiff. The Ute War: A History of the White River Massacre and the Privations and Hardships of the Captive White Women among the Hostiles on Grand River. Denver: Tribune Publishing House, 1879. 192 pp. Illustrations, map, advertisements in back of book. Facsimile edition published by Nolie Mumey, Boulder, Colo., 1964.Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/utewarhistoryofw00dawsrich

Decker, Peter R. “The Utes Must Go!” American Expansion and the Removal of a People. Foreword by Ben Nighthorse Campbell. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing, 2004. xix + 235 pp. Index, endnotes, photos.

Delaney, Robert W. The Southern Ute People. Phoenix, Ariz.: Indian Tribal Series, 1974. limited to 15,000 copies. viii + 102 pp. Bibliography, illustrations, maps.

———. The Ute Mountain Utes. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1989. xiii + 134 pp. Index, essay of sources, endnotes, photos, maps.

Densmore, Frances. Northern Ute Music. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1922. (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 75.) 213 pp. Index, photos, tables, charts, musical notation. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/northernutemusi00densgoog

De Smet, P. J. Letters and Sketches: With a Narrative of a Year's Residence among the Indian Tribes of the Rocky Mountains. Philadelphia: M. Eathian, 1843. 282pp. Illustrations.Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/desmetsletterssk00smetrich

Dixon, Madeline C. These Were the Utes. Provo, Utah: Press Publishing Limited, 1983. vii + 187 pp. Bibliography, photos, illustrations.

Dutton, Bertha Paulin. The Ranchería, Ute, and Southern Ute Peoples. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1975. 124 pp. Bibliography, illustrations, maps.

Ellis, Richard N. The Ute Legacy. Produced by the Southern Ute Cultural Center. Ignacio, Colo.: Pinon Press, 1989. 12 pp.

Emmitt, Robert. The Last War Trail: The Utes and the Settlement of Colorado. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954; reprint by University Press of Colorado, 2000, with foreword by Andrew Gulliford and afterword by Charles Wilkinson. ix + 333 pp. Index, bibliography, drawings, maps. (Civilization of the American Indian, Vol. 40.) 2d ed. 1972.

Fay, George E., comp. Land Cessions in Utah and Colorado by the Ute Indians, 1861–1899. Museum of Anthropology, Miscellaneous Series, No. 13. Greeley: University of Northern Colorado, Museum of Anthropology, 1970. iv + 60 pp.Fitzpatrick, V. S. Red Twilight: A History of the Northern Utes. Ed. by Laura Watts and Harold Babcock. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Earth Design Systems, 1991. ix + 283 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, maps, photos.

Freeman, Dan A. Four Years with the Utes: The Letters of Dan A. Freeman. Ed. by W. M. Morrison. Waco, Tex.: W. M. Morrison, 1962. ii + 10 pp. Limited to 125 copies.

Goss, James A. A Short Dictionary of the Southern Ute Language. Ignacio, Colo.: Southern Ute Tribe, 1961.

Greager, Howard E. We Shall Fall as the Leaves: A Compilation of Events that Led to the Banishment of the Uncompahgre and Northern Ute Tribes from Their Ancestral Colorado Homeland. Published by Howard E. Greager, 1996. ix + 193 pp. Index, photos, drawings, maps.

Iden, Thomas Leroy. “A History of the Ute Indian Cessions of Colorado.” MA thesis. Western State College of Colorado, 1929. 145 pp. Bibliography, maps.

Indian Rights Association. The Ute Indians: Why People in Colorado Want Them to Be Removed. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association, 1890. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/uteindianoutbrake00unitrich

Jeançon, Jean Allard. Archaeological Research in the Northeastern San Juan Basin of Colorado. Ed. Frank H. H. Roberts. Denver: State Historical and Natural History Society of Colorado and the University of Denver, 1922. 31 pp. Illustrations, maps. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/archaeologicalre00robeuoft

A Tribal History. Ed. by Floyd A. O’Neil. Ignacio, Colo.: Southern Ute Tribe, printed by the University of Utah, 1972. 2nd ed. 1973. xi + 106 pp. Essay of sources, photos, maps.

Kane, Francis Fisher. A Further Report to the Indian Rights Association on the Proposed Removal of the Southern Utes. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association, 1892. 32 pp. Map. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/furtherreporttoi00kanerich

Leupp, Francis Ellington. The Latest Phase of the Southern Ute Question. Philadelphia: Office of the Indian Rights Association, 1895. 39 pp.Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/latestphaseofsou00leup

Look, Alfred Alvin. Utes’ Last Stand, at White River and Milk Creek, Western Colorado, in 1879. Denver: Golden Bell Press, 1972. 105 pp. Photos, drawings, maps.

———. Utes of Western Colorado. Grand Junction, Colo.: United States Bank of Grand Junction, 1970. 16 pp. Illustrations.

Lyman, June, and Norma Denver. Ute People: An Historical Study. Ed. by Floyd A. O’Neil and John D. Sylvester. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1970. 127 pp. Bibliography, appendix, illustrations, maps.

Marsh, Charles Seabrooke. The Utes of Colorado: People of the Shining Mountains. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett, 1982. ix + 190 pp. Index, bibliography, photos, drawings, maps.

Mayfield, Clara M. The History of the Southern Ute Indian. New York: Carlton Press, 1972. 63 pp. Photos.

Meeker, Josephine. Brave Miss Meeker’s Captivity! Her Own Account of It. Also, the Narratives of Her Mother and Mrs. Price. Philadelphia: Old Franklin Publishing, 1879. 62 pp.

Miller, Mark E. Hollow Victory: The White River Expedition of 1879 and the Battle of Milk Creek. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1997. xvi + 249 pp. Index, bibliography, appendices, endnotes, photos, drawings, maps, tables.

Nielson, Parker M. The Dispossessed: Cultural Genocide of the Mixed-Blood Utes: An Advocate’s Chronicle. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. x + 338 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, maps.

Osburn, Katherine M. B. Southern Ute Women: Autonomy and Assimilation on the Reservation, 1887–1934. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998. xxxix + 165 pp. Index, bibliography, endnotes, photos, maps, charts.

Painter, C. C. [Charles Cornelius]. Civilization by Removal! The Southern Utes. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association, 1889. 15 pp. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/civilizationbyre00painrich

Palmer, Edward. Notes on the Utah Utes by Edward Palmer, 1866–1877. University of Utah Anthropological Papers, Nos. 17–19. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1954. ii + 8 pp.

Payne, J. S. Incidents of the Recent Campaign Against the Utes. 1880.Full text available online: books.google.com/books

Pettit, Jan. Utes: The Mountain People. Intro. by James Jefferson, tribal historian. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Century One Press, 1982. 80 pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, map.

Progress and the Future: A Report by the Southern Ute Tribe, Ignacio, Colorado. Dallas, Tex.: Taylor Pub. Co., 1966.

Progress: A Report by the Southern Ute Tribe to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on Progress Made Under the Southern Ute Rehabilitation Program between June 1, 1956, and January 1, 1958. Ignacio, Colo.: [s.n.]. Durango, Colo.: printed by Tri-State Printing Co., 1958.

Quintana, Frances Leon. Ordeal of Change: The Southern Utes and Their Neighbors. Walnut Creek, Calif.: Altamira Press, 2004. xv + 109 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, photographs, maps, tables.

Reimer, Donald. D. Ute Mountain Pottery Designs. Towaoc, Colo.: Ute Mountain Indian Pottery, Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, 1977. 79 pp. Photos, 175 illustrations.

Rockwell, Wilson. The Utes: A Forgotten People. Denver: Sage Books, 1956. Reprint Ouray, Colo.: Western Reflections, 1998. 307 pp. Index, bibliography, appendix, footnotes, 53 photos, drawings.

Rose, Ernie. Utahs of the Rocky Mountains. Montrose, Colo.: Montrose Daily Press, 1968. Limited to 1000 copies. 136 pp.

Ruffner, Ernest Howard. Report of a Reconnaissance in the Ute Country Made in the Year 1873. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1874. 100 pp.Full text available online: www.archive.org/stream/reportareconnai00ruffgoog#page/n8/mode/2up

Santala, Russel D. [Russel Dale]. The Ute Campaign of 1879: A Study in the Use of the Military Instrument. Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1994. xiii + 88 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, maps. Full text available online: www.cgsc.edu/carl/resources/csi/santala.asp

Selman, Mormon V. Dictionary of the Ute Language. Provo, Utah: M. H. Graham Printing, 1900.

Simmons, Virginia McConnell. The Ute Indians of Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 2000. xix + 323 pp. Index, bibliography, endnotes, 57 photos, drawings, maps.

Smith, Anne M. [Anne Milne]. Ethnography of the Northern Utes. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1974. vi + 288. Illustrations.

———. Ute Tales. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1992. (University of Utah Publications in the American West, Vol. 29). xxviii + 175 pp. Photos, maps.

Smith, P. David. Ouray: Chief of the Utes. Ouray, Colo.: Wayfinder Press, 1986. 222 pp. Index, bibliography, photos, drawings, maps.

Southern Ute Tribe. “Where We Stand: A Report by the Southern Ute Tribe to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on the Position of the Tribe at the Completion of Its First Five Years of Work under the Southern Ute Rehabilitation Program.” Ignacio, Colorado: 1960.

Spiva, Agnes Elizabeth. Utes in Colorado, 1863–1880. Boulder: University of Colorado, 1929. 145 pp.

Sprague, Marshall. Massacre: The Tragedy at White River. Boston: Little, Brown, 1957. 364 pp. Illustrations, bibliography, index.

Stewart, George Emery Jr. Tales from Indian Country. Orem, Utah: Sun Rise Publishing, 1997. ix + 315 pp. Illustrations.

Stewart, Omer. Ethnohistorical Bibliography of the Ute Indians of Colorado. (University of Colorado Studies, Series in Anthropology, No. 18.) Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1971. 94 pp.

———. Ute Peyotism: A Study of a Cultural Complex. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1948. (University of Colorado Studies. Series in Anthropology, No. 1). Reprinted by Kraus Reprint Co., N.Y., 1972. 42 pp. Bibliography, footnotes, photos, drawings, charts.

Sturgis, Thomas. The Ute War of 1879: Why the Indian Bureau Should Be Transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Department of War. Cheyenne, Wyo.: Leader Steam Book and Job Printing House, 1879. 26 pp. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/utewarof1879whyi00sturrich

Taylor Museum. Ute Indian Arts and Culture: From Prehistory to the New Millennium. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, 2000. viii + 248 pp. Index, bibliography, illustrations, photographs.

Thompson, Gregory Coyne. Southern Ute Lands, 1848–1899: The Creation of a Reservation. Durango, Colo.: Fort Lewis College, 1972. (Center of Southwest Studies. Occasional Paperback No. 1). v + 62 pp. Illustrations.

Tyler, S. Lyman. The Ute People: A Bibliographical Checklist. Institute of American Indian Studies. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, 1964. iii + 120 pp.

United States Congress, House Committee on Indian Affairs. Testimony in Relation to the Ute Indian Outbreak. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880.Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/uteindianoutbrake00unitrich

United States Department of the Interior. Letter from the Secretary of the Interior, Transmitting, in Response to Senate Resolutions of January 27, 1881, Copy of Report of Ute Commission, and Copies of All Correspondence between This Department and the Ute Commission, and also the Governor of Colorado, Concerning the Same Since June 15, 1880. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1881.

United States Senate. 46th Congress, 2nd Session., Ex. Doc. No. 29. Mining Camps on Ute Indian Reservations. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880. 98 pp.

United States Senate. 46th Congress, 2nd. Session. Ex. Doc. No. 30 and No. 31. Ute Indians in Colorado. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880[?] 244 pp. Map.

United States Senate. 57th Congress, 1st Session. Ex Doc. No. 34. “Compensation for the Confederated Bands of Ute Indians.” Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1901. 4 pp.

United States. White River Ute Commission. White River Ute Commission Investigation. Letter from the Secretary of the Interior, Transmitting Copy of Evidence Taken Before White River Ute Commission. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880.

Urquhart, Lena M. Colorow: The Angry Chieftain. Denver: Golden Bell Press, 1968. 51 pp. Bibliography, photos, map.

Ute Photo Album: The Elders, “Nahnpuchew.” Fort Duchesne, Utah: Ute Indian Tribe, 1985.

Ute Reference Grammar. Ignacio, Colo.: Ute Press, Southern Ute Tribe, 1980. The Ute System of Government. Salt Lake City: Uintah-Ouray Ute Tribe, 1977.

Ute Traditional Narratives. Ed. by T. Givón. Ignacio, Colo.: Ute Press, 1985. iv + 293 pp.

The Ute War: A History of the White River Massacre, Facsimile. Comments and notes by Nolie Mumey, M.D. Boulder, Colo.: Johnson, 1964. (Original written and compiled by Thomas F. Dawson and F.J.V. Skiff, Denver, Colo.: Tribune publishing House, 1879.) xvi + 192 pp. Drawings. Full 1879 text available online: www.archive.org/details/utewarhistoryofw00dawsrich

Ute Ways. Salt Lake City: Uintah-Ouray Ute Tribe, 1977.

Vanstone, James W. Fieldiana: An Ethnographic Collection from the Northern Ute in the Field Museum of Natural History. No. 28. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1997. Index, bibliography, illustrations, photos, tables, graphs, maps. Full text available online: www.archive.org/details/ethnographiccoll28vans

Warner, Ted. J. Jr., ed. The Domínguez-Escalante Journal: Their Expedition through Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico in 1776. Trans. by Fray Angelico Chavez. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1995. xix + 203 pp. Illustrations, notes, glossary, bibliography.

Webb, Farren, and Rick Wheelock. The Ute Legacy: A Study Guide. Ignacio, Colo.: Southern Ute Tribe, 1989.

Weenoocheeyoo Peesadueynee Yak:anup: Stories of Our Ancestors. Illustrations by Clifford Duncan. Salt Lake City: Uintah-Ouray Ute Tribe, 1974. x + 109 pp.

Werner, Fred H. Meeker: The Story of the Meeker Massacre and Thornburgh Battle. Greeley, Colo.: Werner Publications, 1985. iv + 172 pp. Photos, illustrations, maps.

Williams, Jack R. Ute Culture Trees: Living History. Florissant, Colo.: Pikes Peak Research Station, Colorado Outdoor Education Center, 2001. 24 pp. Photos, drawings, bibliography.

Witherspoon, Y. T., ed. Conversations with Connor Chapoose, a Leader of the Ute Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation. Recorded in 1960. (University of Oregon Anthropological Papers, No. 47.) Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1993. v + 240 pp.

Wood, Nancy. When Buffalo Freed the Mountains: The Survival of America’s Ute Indians. Photographed by Nancy Wood. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1980. xxii + 293 pp. Photos, maps.

———. War Cry on a Prayer Feather: Prose and Poetry of the Ute Indians. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1979. xii + 109 pp. Photographs.

Wormington, H. M., and Robert H. Lister. Archaeological Investigations on the Uncompahgre Plateau in West Central Colorado. Denver: Denver Museum of Natural History, 1956. 129 pp. Index, illustrations.

Wroth, William, ed. Ute Indian Arts and Culture: From Prehistory to the New Millennium. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, 2000. viii + 248 pp. Index, bibliography, 179 photos, drawings, maps.

Young, Richard Keith. The Ute Indians of Colorado in the Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997. Index, bibliography, endnotes, 30 photos, maps.

Colorado Native Americans, K–12

Arnold, Caroline. The Ancient Cliff Dwellers of Mesa Verde. Clarion, 1992.

Baylor, Byrd. When Clay Sings. Illustrated by Tom Bahti. Scribner’s, 1992.

———. Keepers of the Earth: Native American Stories and Environmental Activities for Children. Illustrated by John Kahionhes Faddon and Carol Wood. Fulcrum, 1989.

Bunting, Eve. Cheyenne Again. Illustrated by Irving Toddy. New York: Clarion, 1995. Sandpiper, 2002.

Capria, Sarah. First Americans: Cheyenne. Marshall Cavendish, 2006. 48 pp.

Daniels, Helen Sloan. The Ute Indians of Southwestern Colorado. Drawings by Pearl Oliver. Durango, Colo.: The Durango Public Library, 1941. viii + 145 pp. Index, bibliography. National Youth Administration Project (WPA) mimeograph in conjunction with Durango Public Library Museum Project.

Denver Art Museum. Colorado’s Native Heritage: A Handbook for Students and Teachers. Denver: Denver Art Museum, 1981.

Eichler, Ken. Swift Eagle’s Vision Quest. Publish America, 2009. 96 pp. Intermediate readers.

Fradin, Dennis B. The Cheyenne. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1988. Fifth printing 1992. 48 pp. Index, glossary, photos, drawings, maps.

Goble, Paul. Death of the Iron Horse. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. K–6

———. The Great Race. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

Grinnell, George Byrd. The Cheyenne Indians. 240 pp. Illustrations.

The History of Western Colorado for Children: The Ute Indians. Grand Junction, Colo.: Bighorn Productions, 1997.

Hobbs, Will. Kokopelli’s Flute. New York: Atheneum, 1995.

Bruchac, Joseph, and Teresa Flavin. Pushing Up the Sky: Seven Native American Plays for Children. New York: Dial, 2000.

Ryan, Marla Felkins, and Linda Schmittroth, eds. Tribes of Native America: Arapaho. Blackbirch Press, 2003.

Krudwig, Vickie Leigh. Searching for Chipeta: The Story of a Ute and Her People. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Books, 2004. 196 pp. Photos.

Sonneborn, Liz. The Cheyenne Indians. Chelsea House Publications, 1992. 76 pp.

Englar, Mary, and Rick Juliani. The Cheyenne Indians: Hunter Gatherers of the Northern Plains. Capstone Press, 2003. 48 pp. Index, illustrations.

Hoig, Stan. The Cheyenne (Indians of North America). Chelsea House Publishers, 1990. 111 pp.

Riney, Scott. The Rapid City Indian School, 1898–1933. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999. 288 pp. Grades 3–4.

Radlauer, Ruth. Mesa Verde National Park. Photos by Rolf Zillmer. Chicago: Children’s Press, 1977. 48 pp. Map, color photos.

Sneve, Virginia Friving Hawk. The Cheyenne Indians: A First American’s Book. Holiday House, 1996.

Remington, Gwen. The Cheyenne (True Books: American Indians). Conn.: Children’s Press, 2003. 48 pp.

Birchfield, D. L. The Cheyenne. (Native American Peoples Series). Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2003. 96 pp. Grades 3–5.

Menunqua. Medicine Bear. Thunder Bay Press, 1996. 72 pp.

Supree, Burton. Bear’s Heart: Scenes from the Life of a Cheyenne Artist of One Hundred Years Ago with Pictures by Himself. Harper Collins, 1977.

Tall Bull, Henry, and Tom Weist. Northern Cheyenne Fire Fighters. Billings, Mont.: Council for Indian Education, 1973. Middle school.

Media and Internet

Denver March Powwow, Female Dancers.  Credit:  VISIT DENVER

American Indian College Fund – Denver
www.collegefund.org/

Indian Voices on KGNU Boulder Denver 88.5 FM, 1390 AM and online at www.kgnu.org Sundays, 3:00-4:00 p.m.

Arapaho Project
www.colorado.edu/csilw/newarapproj2.htm

Cheyenne and Arapahoe Tribes of Oklahoma
www.cheyenne-arapaho.org/

Colorado Directory of American Indian Resources
www.colorado.gov/ltgovernor/initiatives/indianaffairs.html

Colorado Springs Indian Center
www.coloradospringsindiancenter.org/

Denver Indian Center
www.denverindiancenter.org/

Denver March Powwow
www.denvermarchpowwow.org/

Native American Bank–Denver
International Institute for Indigenous Resource Management
444 South Emerson Street
www.nabna.com/

News from Indian Country
www.indiancountrynews.com/  

Northern Cheyenne Tribe: Official Site of the Tsitsistas and So’taeo’ o People. www.cheyennenation.com/

Rocky Mountain Indian Chamber
www.rmicc.org/

Southern Ute Indian Tribe
www.southern-ute.nsn.us

University of Colorado at Boulder Library.
“Native American Treaties and Information.”
ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/us/native.htm

Upcoming Native American Events in Colorado and surrounding states
www.fortnet.org/PowWow/events.html

Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
www.utemountainute.com

Movies

Hollywood has done much to promote Native American stereotypes—particularly, but not limited to, movies with older release dates. Several of the movies listed below exemplify such biases.

Centennial. FVF. Directed by Harry Falk, Paul Krasny, Bernard McEveety, Virgil W. Vogel. 1978, Universal TV. 2008. 1248 min.

Cheyenne Dog Soldiers’ Story. Directed by Ava Hamilton. 1993, Tribeca Film

Cheyenne Warrior. DVD. Directed by Mark Griffiths. 1994, Libra Pictures. 90 min.

Chief’s Prophecy: Survival of the Northern Cheyenne Nation (The). Directed by Leo Killsback. FVF. 2009, Arizona Public Media. 60 min.

Destiny at Dawn: Loss and Victory on the Washita. FVF. Centennial, Colo.: Great Divide Pictures, 2004. 25 min.

Grayeagle. Directed by Charles B. Pierce. VHS. 1977, Charles P. Pierce Production Inc., 2001. 104 min.

How the West Was Lost. Directed by Ric Burns. FVF. “The Only Good Indian Is a Dead Indian.” “Kill the Indian, Save the Man.” The Utes Must Go.” 1995, PBS Paramount, 2006.

In the White Man’s Image. “The American Experience.” Directed by Christine Lesiak. FVF. 1991, American Experience. 58 min.

Last of the Dog Men. Directed by Tab Murphy. VHS. 1995; Carolco Pictures, 1996. 118 min.

Little Big Man. Directed by Arthur Penn. FVF. 1970; Cinema Center Films; 2003. 139 min.

Native Americans. “The Plains. Part 1: All Our Relations.” “The Plains, Part II: Fields of Grass, Seas of Blood.” Directed by John Borden, George Burdeau, and Phil Lucas. FVF. 1994; Turner Home Entertainment, 1998. 110 min.

Pow Wow Highway. Directed by Jonathan Wacks. FVF. 1989; Handmade Films, 2004. 87 min.

500 Nations. “Roads across the Plains: Struggle for the West.” FVF. 1995; Santa Barbara Studios, 2004. 53 min.

She Wore a Yellow Ribbon. Directed by John Ford. FVF. 1949; Argosy Pictures, 2007. 103 min.

Silent Thunder. Directed by Angelique Midthunder. FVF. 2006; Midthunder Productions. 27 min.

Soldier Blue. Directed by Ralph Nelson. FVF. 1970; AVCO Embassy Pictures, 2006. 112 min.

Stagecoach. Directed by John Ford. 1939; Walter Wanger Productions, 2007. 96 min.

“Tears in the Sand” Rocky Mountain Legacy. VHS. 1999; KRMA-TV 60 min.

Way West (The). FVF. “The War for the Black Hills.” Directed by Ric Burns. 1995; PBS Paramount, 2006. 90 min.

Windwalker. Directed by Keith Merrill. VHS. 1981; Santa Fe International. 108 min.

Museums and Historic Sites

Anasazi Cultural Center / Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
27501 Highway 184
Dolores, CO 81323
(970)882-5600
www.blm.gov/co/st/en/fo/ahc.html

Battle of Milk Creek Monument (marker)
Northeast of Meeker, off Colorado 13 on dirt road

Beecher Island Battlefield / Simmons State Wildlife Area
From US 36 a few miles west of the Kansas line, drive north on CRLL about 10 miles (CRLL turns into CRKK just before Beecher Island) to Beecher Island Battleground, on the west side of the road and the north side of the Arikaree River.

Bent’s Old Fort
35120 Highway 194
La Junta, CO 35120
(719)384-2596
www.nps.gov/beol/index.htm

Black Kettle Museum
LL Males & Broadway,
Corner of 283 and State Hwy. 47
Cheyenne, OK
(580) 497-3929, call ahead.

Canyon Pintado Historic District (marker)
Along Colorado 139 between Douglas Pass and Rangley
Colorado

Chaco Canyon
PO Box 220
Nageezi, NM 87037
(505)786-7014 x 221
www.nps.gov/chcu/index.htm

Colorado History Museum
(expectant opening, 2011)
12th Ave. & Broadway
Denver, CO 80203
(303)866-4686
www.coloradohistory.org/

Comanche National Grasslands
27162 Highway 287
PO Box 127
Springfield, CO 81073
(719)523-6591
www.fs.fed.us/r2/psicc/coma/

Denver Art Museum
100 W. 14th Avenue Parkway
Denver, CO 80203
(303)575-2793
www.denverartmuseum.org/home

Denver March Powwow, Inc.
PO Box 19178
Denver, CO 80219
(303)934-8045
Email: denvermarchpowwow@comcast.net

Denver Museum of Nature and Science
2001 Colorado Boulevard
Denver, CO 80205
(303)322-7009
www.dmns.org/main/en/

Dinosaur National Monument
4545 Highway 40
Dinosaur, CO 81610
(970)374-3000
www.nps.gov/dino/index.htm

Fort Garland Museum
Colorado Historical Society
Fort Garland, CO 81133
(719)379-3512
www.coloradohistory.org/hist_sites/ft_garland/ft_garland.htm

Fort Uncompahgre Living History Museum
360 Main Street
Delta, CO
(970)874-8349
(970)874-1718
www.silverstage.net/FortUncompahgre.htm

Fort Vasquez State Museum
Colorado Historical Society
13412 Highway 85
Platteville, CO 80651
(303)785-2832
www.coloradohistory.org/hist_sites/ft_vasquez/ft_vasquez.htm

Fremont Indian State Park
11000 Clear Creek Canyon Road
Sevier, UT 84766
(801)527-4631
stateparks.utah.gov/parks/fremont

Koshare Indian Museum
115 W. 18th
La Junta, CO 35120
(719)384-4411
www.kosharehistory.org/

Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument
P. O. Box 39
Crow Agency, MT 59022
(406)638-2621
www.nps.gov/libi/index.htm

Mesa Verde National Park
PO Box 8
Mesa Verde, CO 81330-0008
(970)529-4465
http://www.nps.gov/meve/index.htm

Museum of Western Colorado
4th and Ute
Grand Junction, CO 81501
(303)242-0971
www.museumofwesternco.com/

Rangely Museum
434 W. Main Street
Rangely, CO 81648
(303)675-2612
www.rangely.com/Museum.htm

Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
P. O. Box 249
Eads, CO 81036
(719)729-3003

St. Stephens Indian Mission
PO Box 250
St. Stephens, WY 82524
(307)856-7806

Summit Springs
From 1-76, Exit 115 at Atwood. The site is southeast on Colorado 63 about 5 miles. Turn left on Washington County Road 60 and go 4 miles east to a dead end, and then turn right and go a mile south on a gravel road to a windmill and a turnaround.

Ute Indian Museum
Colorado Historical Society
17253 Chipeta Road
Montrose, CO
(970) 249-3098
(970)252-8741
www.coloradohistory.org/hist_sites/uteindian/ute_Indian.htm

Ute Mountain Tribal Park
P. O. Box 109
Towaoc, Colorado 81334
(970)565-3751 x 330
1-800-847-5485
Visitors Center and Museum
(970)749-1452
www.utemountainute.com/tribalpark.htm

Washita Battlefield National Historic Site
Rt. 1, Box 55a
Cheyenne, OK 73628
(580)497-2742
www.nps.gov/waba/index.htm

Yucca House National Monument
Call Mesa Verde National Park (970)529-4465

Pam Milavec received her undergraduate degree from Metropolitan State College of Denver in both History and English/Writing. She is currently pursuing her MA in History at the University of Colorado at Denver. She has researched extensively and published on Native American-White relations, though claims no expertise on either culture. She also edited the 2010 UCDenver Historical Studies Journal. A lifelong advcate of education, she is employed by Denver Public Schools’ Polaris Program at Ebert Elementary. She compiled the Colorado Native American Resource Guide as part of her duties as a King intern with the Center for Colorado and the West.

Authors

Pam Milavec with Angela DiPaolo, Dana EchoHawk, Pam Holtman, Ernest House Jr., Stephen Leonard, John Monnett and Tom Noel for the Center for Colorado & The West at Auraria Library, 2010

Comments

Wow! What an amazing resource for educators of the history of the West. I am bookmarking this site and will definitely use it as I teach American Western History this summer, and Native American History of the Greater Plains next Spring. THANK YOU! This was an enormous undertaking. Now, my question. I believe, I think, I heard Pam Milavec present at the WHA in Denver in 2009 about a fascinating memoir of the Sand Creek Massacre. Am I right? I was wondering if you were publishing that work, or if you have published it Pam? I would like to use it in my own work. Thanks! Taylor